Friday, 21 January 2022

A brief look at projections and forecasts for six aspects of the Australian economy in 2021-22 & 2022-23


With only a seventeen-week window remaining in which Prime Minister Scott Morrison can first present an early Budget 2022-23 to the Australian Parliament, then dissolve said Parliament, before going on to call a federal general election and run a formal election campaign; sometime soon Coalition Government MPs and senators will have to begin addressing economic issues when out and about in their electorates. 

So perhaps it is time to start looking at projections and forecasts for 2022 made by government departments, financial institutions and industry - before local electioneering hype is raised to such a pitch that facts and considered opinion get lost in the political mêlée. 

Here are six aspects of economic activity which always get a mention in the NSW Northern Rivers region at some time in an election cycle.


ABC News, 18 January 2022:

Consumer confidence slumps

The Omicron COVID-19 variant has hit consumer confidence, according to ANZ and Roy Morgan.

Their measure of consumer confidence fell 7.6 per cent last week to 97.9, the lowest level since October 2020, as Omicron surged across Australia and facilities came under immense strain.

That was lower than during last year's lockdowns when the Delta variant surged.

All the survey's subindices fell including current and future financial conditions.

Nearly one in five respondents expected to be worse off by this time next year.

ANZ head of Australian Economics, David Plank, said the index level of 97.9 was the weakest January result since 1992, when the Australian economy was experiencing rising unemployment.

"The result highlights the concerns about COVID have the potential to significantly impact the economy if they linger," he said.

ANZ said spending had continued to fall because of the spread of Omicron, with a drop of 27 per cent over the first half of January, compared to the first half of December.

Spending was also lower on eating out.

Omicron hit to economy

CBA credit and debit card data indicated that spending has dropped sharply on services over the past few weeks.

Commonwealth Bank economist Gareth Aird said the large number of COVID-19 cases is hurting the employment market, with an estimated 1 million people in isolation, and reduced spending on goods and services.

That means many businesses have been forced to close, or reduce capacity and opening hours.

He has slashed his growth forecast for the first quarter of 2022 from 2.3 per cent to just 1 per cent.

"The next few months are without a shred of doubt going to be difficult and testing for the economy," Mr Aird said.

"Our working assumption is that more policy support will be forthcoming, particularly stimulus that is targeted towards businesses most adversely impacted by the surge in COVID cases and isolation requirements."

Mr Aird said he expected the economy to snap back in the second quarter of 2022.


Australian Government General Government Sector Monthly Financial Statements November 2021, 24 December 2021:


  • The Monthly Financial Statements for November 2021 report the budget position against the expected monthly profile for the 2021-22 financial year through to 30 November 2021, based on the 2021-22 Budget estimates published in May 2021.

  • The 2021-22 Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO) was released on Thursday, 16 December 2021. Commencing with the December 2021 monthly financial statements, which will be released in January 2022, the budget position will be reported against the expected monthly profile based on the updated estimates outlined in the 2021-22 MYEFO.

  • The November 2021 year to date results include the impact of the Australian Government’s response to COVID-19.

  • The underlying cash balance for the 2021-22 financial year to 30 November 2021 was a deficit of $41.8 billion against the Budget profile deficit of $55.9 billion.

  • The fiscal balance for the 2021-22 financial year to 30 November 2021 was a deficit of $36.0 billion against the Budget profile deficit of $55.2 billion.

Monthly results are generally volatile due to timing differences between revenue and receipts, and expenses and payments. Care needs to be taken when comparing monthly or cumulative data across years and to full-year estimates, as revenue and receipts and expenses and payments vary from month to month.


Underlying Cash Balance

The underlying cash balance for the financial year to 30 November 2021 was a deficit of $41.8 billion, which is $14.1 billion lower than the 2021-22 Budget profile deficit of $55.9 billion.

  • Receipts

Total receipts were $34.3 billion higher than the 2021-22 Budget profile.

  • Payments

Total payments were $20.2 billion higher than the 2021-22 Budget profile.

Net Operating Balance

The net operating balance for the financial year to 30 November 2021 was a deficit of $35.5 billion, which is $17.8 billion lower than the 2021-22 Budget profile deficit of $53.4 billion. The difference results from higher than expected revenue, partially offset by higher than expected expenses.

Fiscal Balance

The fiscal balance for the financial year to 30 November 2021 was a deficit of $36.0 billion, which is $19.3 billion lower than the 2021-22 Budget profile deficit of $55.2 billion. The difference results from higher than expected revenue and lower than expected net capital investment, partially offset by higher expenses.

Assets and Liabilities

As at 30 November 2021:

  • net worth is negative $743.5 billion;

  • net debt is $607.3 billion; and

  • net financial liabilities are $987.2 billion.


Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly December 2021, excerpt:

Australia’s resource and energy exports are estimated to reach a record $379 billion in 2021–22, up from $310 billion in 2020–21. In 2022–23, export earnings are then forecast to decline back to $311 billion, as commodity prices settle lower.

The global recovery remains underway, sustained by the ongoing rollout of COVID-19 vaccines and continued fiscal and monetary support across major economies. However, new outbreaks (and variants) of the pandemic across many regions are inhibiting a full global recovery, as are supply chain blockages — including shortages of semi-conductor chips and of shipping containers in some locations.

China’s power shortages have been a dominant influence on global resource and energy commodity prices in recent months. As a major global metal refiner, the power shortages have seen Chinese (base and ferrous) metal output cut back. China’s property sector has slowed noticeably since our last report, cutting metal usage. However, the Chinese authorities now appear to be taking steps to stabilise the sector.

New policy developments are also impacting the global resources and energy sector. In October, China’s government instructed the nation’s coal miners to lift output and imposed a thermal coal price cap, following critical shortages. In November, the US Congress passed a US$1.2 trillion infrastructure program, which will have a stimulatory effect on economic growth domestically and have flow-on effects offshore.

A stronger outlook for base metals and coal is expected to more than offset the impact on export earnings of the downward adjustment we have made to our iron ore price forecasts. Lithium exports are expected to overtake zinc exports in 2022–23 as car makers race to capture the electric vehicle market.

With energy inventories lower than normal, the severity of the remainder of the Northern Hemisphere winter will have a critical influence on energy markets in the short term. The La Niña weather pattern will likely impact on the demand and supply for coal and other energy products.

The risks to the record export earnings forecast for 2021–22 are skewed to the downside. They include a much faster than expected decline in coal prices. There is also potential for a further rise in global inflation and a risk of higher interest rates in response. New, vaccine-resistant strains of the coronavirus, and the risk of delays in the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines to the world’s population, could also pose significant risks.


Dept. of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Outlook for Crops, excerpt:

Value of crop production to reach record high in 2021–22

The gross value of crop production is forecast to reach a record $43 billion in 2021–22, driven by record winter crop production and high world grain and oilseed prices. Favourable seasonal conditions across all winter cropping regions, particularly in New South Wales and Western Australia (the two biggest winter crop–producing states) are forecast to result in above average to significantly above average yields. A favourable outlook for increased summer crop production is also contributing to the forecast record. The gross value of all major crop commodities is forecast to reach a record level:

  • wheat – $11.5 billion (record high)

  • barley – $3.4 billion (record high)

  • canola – $5.2 billion (record high)

  • cotton – $3.9 billion (record high)

  • horticulture – $12.5 billion (second highest on record)

Heavy November rainfall has caused flooding in northern and central west New South Wales resulting in production losses for some producers. Although this is not expected to significantly affect tonnage produced, it will affect the value because of a downgrade in quality. Continued high rainfall in December will cause further damage and more total crop losses if crops cannot be harvested.

In other areas across the eastern states and South Australia, wet conditions during harvest and reduced soil nutrient levels caused by 2 years of high yields could reduce grain and oilseeds quality compared with recent years. The extent of these impacts would differ from paddock-to-paddock, and downgrades of wheat protein levels or improvements in the oil content of canola crops could affect the prices that growers receive.

Despite concerns about a resurgence in mice numbers, increased baiting on farms during winter and spring has reduced mice populations in affected regions, and there have been no reports of significant damage to date. They still remain a risk for summer crops in parts of southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. Farm profits could be reduced by high baiting and cleaning costs if mouse numbers remain elevated during summer.

Figure 1.1 Gross value of crop production, 1971–72 to 2021–22

f ABARES forecast.

Sources: ABARES; Australian Bureau of Statistics

Dept. of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Economic overview: December quarter 2021, excerpt:

Exchange rate to remain at current levels

In 2021–22, the Australian exchange rate is assumed to average US74 cents – 1 cent lower than the average for 2020–21. Downward pressure on the exchange rate from falling iron ore prices is expected to be balanced by upward pressure from strengthening economic activity and steep increases in coal and natural gas prices.

Overseas interest rates may move higher over 2022, adding to downward pressure on the Australian dollar if current domestic monetary policy settings remain. Stronger than expected inflation overseas could prompt central banks to bring forward planned rate rises. Australian interest rates are not expected to be lifted in 2021–22. The Reserve Bank of Australia has clearly signalled it will not raise rates unless inflation is sustained in the target range (core inflation of 2 to 3%) and wages growth is ‘materially higher’ than it is at present. Wages growth in Australia remains at less than half the average rate recorded between 2000 and 2010, despite relatively low unemployment.


Do not travel to Australia......

Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Commonwealth of Australia, 7 January 2022:

Notice on China-bound foreign passengers' application of health code Jan-07-2022

2022-01-07 16:05

In order to reduce cross-border transmission of Covid-19, especially considering the latest developments of COVID-19 in Australia, the Embassy and Consulate-Generals of China have made major changes on the application procedures. Passengers who travel on and after 17 January, 2022 are kindly required to read and follow instructions below....

Tourism Australia, International Visitor Survey results September 2021:

Key results

Key results for the year ending September 2021 include:

  • international visitor numbers fell by 98.2% to 155,469

  • international visitor spend was down 97.1% to $1.3 billion

  • visitor nights were down 96.2% to 10.4 million.

Australia’s top 5 markets

Australia’s top 5 international visitor markets saw significant losses:

  • Chinese visitor numbers fell 99.7%. This was a loss of 1.3 million visitors. Spend fell 99.4% or $12.2 billion.

  • New Zealand visitor numbers fell 93.0%. This was a loss of 1.2 million visitors. Spend fell 88.6% or $2.3 billion. New Zealand saw the smallest losses of all markets, recording 89,000 visitors. This was more than half (57%) of all visitors to Australia for the year ending September 2021. This was due to a trans-Tasman bubble opening between the 2 countries during the June quarter 2021.

  • United States of America visitor numbers fell 98.9%. This was a loss of 763,000 visitors. Spend fell 96.4% or $3.9 billion.

  • United Kingdom visitor numbers fell 98.9%. This was a loss of 662,000 visitors. Spend fell 96.3% or $3.2 billion.

  • Japanese visitor numbers fell 99.7%. This was a loss of 454,000 visitors. Spend fell 99.3% or $2.1 billion.

Tourism losses due to COVID-19

Total international and domestic tourism losses since the start of the pandemic in March 2020 reached $128.3 billion.

International tourism saw losses of $62.5 billion for March 2020 to September 2021. This was due to international border closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Over the same period, there were further losses of:

  • $49.8 billion from domestic overnight travel

  • $16.0 billion from domestic day travel.

Note: The only federal government tourism recovery scenarios are dated 2020 and can be found at Australian Trade and Investment Commission, Tourism Research Australia, Tourism Recovery Scenarios.


Australian climate variability & change - Time series graphs

Australian Bureau of Meteorology

Australian climate variability & change - Trend maps

Australian Bureau of Meteorology

Australian Government Dept. of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources, Quarterly Update of Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory: June 2021, Incorporating emissions from the NEM up to September 2021, excepts:

On a quarterly basis, national emission levels for the June quarter 2021 increased 0.4% or 0.5 Mt CO2-e on the previous quarter in trend terms. The trend result for the June quarter 2021 reflects small increases across all sectors of the inventory with the exception of the electricity sector which was lower by 0.2% on the March quarter 2021….

On an annual basis, the consumption-based inventory increased 0.4% or 1.8 Mt CO2-e to 420.8 Mt CO2-e in the year to June 2021….

National emissions are preliminarily estimated to be 500 Mt CO2-e in the year to September 2021.

Long term sectoral trends

The most important sectoral drivers of Australia’s long-term emissions trend have been:

Electricity – where emissions have fallen by 22.6% since the year to June 2009 as renewables have displaced coal as a fuel source, reversing the long term increases experienced in earlier


Stationary energy (excluding electricity) – which has shown the largest growth of any sector in percentage terms since 1990. Emissions have increased 50.3% or 33.3 Mt CO2-e driven, in particular, by recent growth in the export of LNG;

Transport – where emissions have increased 48.6% or 29.8 Mt CO2-e since 1990, despite recent volatility due to the impacts of the COVID pandemic;

Fugitives – where emissions have increased 21.3% or 8.6 Mt CO2-e since 1990. Emissions were relatively stable until 2012 but have increased strongly as a result of the growth of the LNG industry;

Agriculture – where emissions have declined by 18.5% or 17.0 Mt CO2-e since 1990, in line with declining cattle and sheep populations; and,

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) – where emissions have decreased by the largest margin of any sector since 1990 (112.6% or 218.1 Mt CO2-e) due to reductions in land clearing and native forest harvesting, increases in plantations and native vegetation, and improvements in soil carbon.


Thursday, 20 January 2022

Exactly 725 days into the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia and the elderly continue to die in NSW due to the indifference of the Morrison & Perrottet governments

As of 8pm on Wednesday 19 January 2022 there were 19,791 new confirmed COVID -19 cases reported by NSW Health in the last 24hr period. - comprising 17, 647 positive PCR tests and est. 2,144 self-reported positive rapid antigen tests.

Given the level of COVID-19 case under reporting this represents due to the combined state & federal mismanagement of the public health response (including disease test, trace & contact measures), conservatively the real NSW daily new case number on 19 January is estimated in excess of 98,995 persons.

Currently there are 2,781 COVID-19 cases admitted to NSW hospitals, including 212 people in intensive care, 68 of whom require ventilation.

As at Monday 17 January 166,122 people in the state were managing their COVID-19 illness at home or in insecure accommodation.

In the 24hrs to 8pm on 17 January a total of 25 people died with a COVID-19 diagnoses - 16 men and 9 women – with 65% of those dead being between 70 years of age to over 100 years of age.

As of 19 January 2022 there were 278,324 active COVID-19 cases across New South Wales.

The positivity rate on those daily PCR tests is 24.08% - so far above the World Health Organisation benchmark for an epidemic virus within a controllable range (under 5%) that there is no reason to see these numbers signalling the beginning of the end of the pandemic in New South Wales or Australia generally. Indeed, by week ending 15 January 2022 all 15 NSW local health districts were recording positivity rates of more than 5 %.

According to a Northern NSW Health District (NNSWLHD) media release on 20 January 2022:

To 8pm 19 January, 1,051 new cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in Northern NSW Local Health District, including 601 positive PCR tests and 450 positive rapid antigen tests (RATs).


Ballina 63 [968 active cases]

Byron 78 [1,384 active cases]

Clarence Valley 45 [458 active cases]

Kyogle 14 [89 active cases]

Lismore 48 [591 active cases]

Richmond Valley 61 [374 active cases]

Tenterfield 2 (Woodenbong & Urbenville post code that comes under Lismore PHU)

Tweed 290 [3,391 active cases]

NOTE: My annotations in red come from data recorded for 19 January 2022 on “Map of NSW PCR tests and cases reported from PCR tests”

There are 50 COVID-19 positive patients in hospital in Northern NSW, with 6 of these in ICU. (Tenterfield is in a different Local Health District, but postcodes put cases in NNSWLHD).

** Please note these RAT results may be from within the previous seven days, and there may be some cases included in these numbers where people have reported positive RATs on multiple days and/or where people have also had a positive PCR test during the same reporting period.

Quite frankly the NNSWLHD’s inability to accurately record and quantify the number of daily new COVID-19 cases in Northern NSW makes a mockery of any claim to have a genuine test, trace, contact & isolate/quarantine system in place. A failing they share with NSW Health and NSW Coalition Government. Therefore I am at a loss as to how I might accurately record the real number of daily new cases by postcode for the 7 local government areas within this health district.



Clarence Valley Council has a new Mayor and Deputy Mayor


Clarence Valley Councillors 
Back Row L to R: Ian Tiley, Greg Clancy, Bill Day, Steve Pickering
Front Row L to R: Karen Toms, Alison Whaites, Peter Johnstone, Jeff Smith. IMAGE: Clarence Valley Council

Clarence Valley Council, 12 January 2022:

Councillors Ian Tiley and Greg Clancy have been elected Mayor and Deputy Mayor of the Clarence Valley at the first meeting of the newly appointed council.....


 Cr Tiley has previously served as Mayor on three different councils over a total seven years – Maclean Shire from 1997-2000, Clarence Valley Council from 2005-08 and Armidale Regional Council from 2020-21. 

The Emeritus Mayor said he felt humbled to be returning to the position of Mayor, marking it as “the beginning of a new era for the Clarence Valley Council”. 

“We as your council will strive to ensure that our community is vibrant and viable, and that our environment and biodiversity is protected and enhanced so that we can look our future generations in the eye and say ‘we tried our best’,” Cr Tiley said. 

“Improving the trust and confidence of the Clarence community will be a very high priority. "We are committed to transparency, openness and thereby community trust and confidence in the council, which belongs to the people we are privileged to represent.” 

Cr Clancy takes on the Deputy Mayor role after five years as a Clarence Valley councillor. 

Both Cr Tiley and Cr Clancy will remain in their roles until September 2023, when a mid-term election will be held for the Mayor and Deputy Mayor.

There were three councillors who stood for Mayor at the 11 January Clarence Valley Council Extraordinary Meeting, Clrs. Ian Tiley, Debrah Novak and Karen Toms.  The vote was Tiley 5, Novak 2, Toms 2. Due to the tied vote the returning officer was obliged to exclude one candidate by blind draw and Clr. Novak was excluded and a second vote taken. Resulting in a final vote Tiley 5 and Toms 4. 

Three councillors also stood for Deputy Mayor, Clrs. Greg Clancy, Alison Whaites and Jeff Smith.  The vote was Clancy 5, Whaites 2 and Smith 2. The required second ballot saw the vote result as Clancy 5 and Smith 4. 

Contact details for all Clarence Valley councillors here.

Wednesday, 19 January 2022

Comparing active cases and COVID-19 related deaths on the Australian east coast mainland as of Monday 17 January 2022


As of 7pm Monday 17 January 2022 there were 86,561 confirmed active COVID-19 cases in Queensland. There were 819 COVID-19 cases in hospital – with 50 active cases in ICU, including 18 on a ventilator. A total of 16 deaths occurred of three people in their 70s, eight in their 80s, four in their 90s and one person aged over 100.


As of 8pm Monday 17 January 2022 there were 326,356 confirmed active COVID-19 cases in NSW. There were 2,850 COVID-19 cases in hospital – with 209 active cases in ICU, including 63 on a ventilator. A total of 36 deaths occurred - one person was aged in their 40s, two people were aged in their 50s, one person was aged in their 60s, eleven people were in their 70s, twelve people were in their 80s and nine people were in their 90s.


As of 8pm Monday 17 January 2022 there were 3,205 confirmed active COVID-19 cases in NSW. There were 52 COVID-19 cases in hospital – with 4 active cases in ICU, including 2 on a ventilator. A total of one death occurred


As of 4pm Monday 17 January 2022 there were 235,035 confirmed active COVID-19 cases in Victoria. There are 1,152 COVID-19 cases in hospital – with 93 active cases in ICU, including 43 on a ventilator, and 34 cleared cases in ICU. A total of 22 deaths occurred of people aged in their 50s, 60s, 70s, 80s and 90s.

Is hoping this SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant is the last phase of the global pandemic just wishful thinking based on federal government propaganda and not science?

Denial of the science of epidemiology is widespread, even among ‘experts’. We are told repeatedly that SARS-CoV-2 will become ‘endemic’. But it will never be endemic because it is an epidemic disease and always will be.” [Professor Raina MacIntyre, (UNSW) Principal Research Fellow and Professor of Global Biosecurity, Head Biosecurity Program, Kirby Institute which conducts research in epidemiology, vaccinology, bioterrorism prevention, mathematical modelling, genetic epidemiology, public health and clinical trials in infectious diseases, writing in The Saturday Paper, 15 January 2022]

ABC News program, CoronacastInterview by Tegan Taylor with Dr. Norman Swan14 January 2022:

"Is Omicron the last variant?" [Duration: 21min 21sec]

"We're all no doubt very tired of the pandemic by now and could be forgiven for hoping now that Omicron has landed in Australia, once we get over the current outbreak it's all over.

But according to evolutionary virologist Eddie Holmes, sadly Omicron won't be the last and in fact the next variant probably won't evolve from Omicron.

So what can we do apart from get vaccinated and hope this terrible roller coaster ride will somehow end soon?"

Click here to start listening:

Tuesday, 18 January 2022

VALE: Stan Mussared, educator, campaigner for ecological sustainability and environmental warrior

The Environmental Legacy of Stan Mussared

Stan Mussared with "The Earth Charter In Action"
Reweavers Dinner 2017

IMAGE: Lyn Hoskings

Stan Mussared, a Clarence Valley resident for 58 years and a highly respected teacher at Grafton High School for 31 years, died in December 2021. For the last three and a half decades of his life he also played a significant role in the conservation movement in the Clarence Valley.

Stan’s concern for a healthy natural environment developed from the values of his mother who instilled in him compassion and a respect for all life. This became a guiding principle in both his personal and community life.

Magda & Stan in their garden 2017
IMAGE: Lyn Hoskings
His commitment to ecological sustainability led to the long-term re-vegetation project on the Waterview Heights block he and his wife Magda moved to in 1973. At that time there were only two trees – a forest redgum and an ironbark - on the degraded four acre block. Transformed gradually through their determination and hard work, their block is now covered by a wonderful native forest which provides healthy habitat for a variety of wildlife - including koalas which have been visiting regularly since 2008.

Stan’s involvement in public environmental campaigning began when he joined a small group of dedicated people who formed the Clarence Valley Branch of the National Parks Association to save the Washpool rainforest from logging. From all accounts it was a very tense battle from mid-1980 with conservationists on one side and sawmillers and timber workers on the other. The conservationists’ determined campaign eventually led to the NSW Government’s decision to create the Washpool National Park which ensured this magnificent natural area was saved.

1988 brought another threat to the local environment – the Harris Daishowa proposal for a massive chemical pulp mill in the Clarence Valley. Despite government and local council support for the mill, community opposition grew quickly with the Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition (CVCC) being formed to fight the proposal. Members of the new group included Stan, the Washpool campaigners and many others. One of the campaign highlights - the March 1989 public meeting at South Grafton High School - was attended by 1,000 people. Stan was a major speaker presenting the economic and social costs of the proposal at this meeting and others around the area. Months later the strong community campaign paid off with Daishowa withdrawing its proposal. People power had beaten Daishowa.

Stan retired from teaching in 1993 – which gave him more time for other activities including environmental campaigning. Over the next 25 years he used his teaching expertise and organisational and communication skills to explain the importance of protecting the natural environment for the benefit of the community of life.

Stan was also was involved in opposing the plan to divert water from the Nymboida River to provide the constantly growing Coffs Harbour with a long-term secure water supply. From the mid-1990s to the early 2000s this resulted in more campaigning, more meetings to attend and more speeches from Stan and others about the danger to the Clarence River system of this inter-catchment transfer of water when better alternatives were available. Despite strong campaigning from the CVCC, the Clarence Environment Centre and Valley Watch this proposal went ahead with the construction of the Shannon Creek Dam and a pipeline to Coffs Harbour.

Campaigns on a variety of environmental issues continued and Stan’s leadership role was vital. He was Vice President of the Conservation Coalition for many years and served as its President for 9 years from 2010.

One of his most significant achievements was the founding of the annual Re-Weavers of the Tapestry awards in 2006. These awards honour and publicise the environmental work of individuals and groups who have re-woven green threads of sustainability into the Earth’s Tapestry to repair its wholeness. Local conservationists recognised include John and Pat Edwards (Shannondale), Peter Wrightson (Ashby), Kay Jeffrey (Iluka), Barbara Fahey (Grafton) and Russell Jago (Ulmarra). Others from further afield who have been honoured include Ashley Love (Coffs Harbour), Carmel Flint (Armidale), Jim Tedder (Grassy Head), Dailan Pugh (Byron Bay) Celia Smith (Armidale), and the Port Macquarie Koala Hospital.

Over the years since he became an environmental campaigner Stan spoke strongly for the Earth Community through letters and articles in the local media, through membership of a range of local organisations as well as participation in Council and Government committees.

As a committed environmentalist Stan Mussared achieved a great deal in his 88 years. He was a wonderful advocate for the natural world and an inspiration to many people.

Leonie Blain

Honorary Secretary, Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition.

Stan Mussared beside the Clarence River
IMAGE: supplied